Plantebasert ernæring

Hva med næringsstoffer i plantebasert kosthold?
Hva med næringsstoffer i plantebasert kosthold?

Et riktig sammensatt plantebasert kosthold kan dekke behovet for alle næringsstoffer unntatt vitamin B12 og vitamin D.

Les også:

Omega-3 fettsyrer

  • Lane K, Derbyshire E, Li W, Brennan C. Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 Fatty acids: a review of the literature. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54:572–9.
  • Lenihan-Geels G, Bishop KS, Ferguson LR. Alternative sources of omega-3 fats: can we find a sustainable substitute for fish? Nutrients. 2013;5:1301–15.
  • Bernstein AM, Ding EL, Willett WC, Rimm EB. A Meta-Analysis Shows That Docosahexaenoic Acid from Algal Oil Reduces Serum Triglycerides and Increases HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol in Persons without Coronary Heart Disease. Journal of Nutrition. 2012. p. 99–104.
  •  Mangat I. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Do vegetarians have to eat fish for optimal cardiovascular protection? May;89(5):1597S-1601S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736I. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
  • Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM: Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78(3 Suppl):640S-646S; http://ajcn.nutritio n.org/content/78/3/640S.full
  • Sanders TA: Essential  fatty acid requirements of vegetarians in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70(3 Suppl):555S-559S;  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10479231
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM): Essential Fatty Acids. http://pcrm.org/health/veginfo/essential_fatty_acids.html;
  • Hunter JE: n-3 Fatty acids from vegetable oils. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:809-14;
  • Mantzioris E, James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG: Dietary substitution with an alpha-linolenic acid-rich vegetable oil increases eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1304-9;
  •  ScienceDaily, New Sustainable Plant Source Of Omega-3. 21.03.2007, http://www.v-pure.com/omega3/; http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070330231448.html;

Les også: Kilder til omega-3 i vegansk kosthold

Protein

  • Mangels R. Protein in the Vegan Diet. Veg Resour Gr. 2012;1–9.

Les også: Kilder til protein i plantebasert og vegansk kosthold

Animalske kilder til protein, sykdom og helse

Kalsium

  • Weaver CM, Proulx WR, Heaney R: Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70(3 Suppl):543S-548S;

Les også: Kilder til kalsium i plantebasert kosthold

Vitamin D

  • Casey CF, Slawson DC, Neal LR: VItamin D supplementation in infants, children, and adolescents. Am Fam Physician 2010, 81(6):745-748;
  • Kulie T, Groff A, Redmer J, Hounshell J, Schrager S: Vitamin D: an evidence-based review. J Am Board Fam Med 2009, 22(6):698-706;
  • Rangel-Castro JI, Staffas A, Danell E.: The ergocalciferol content of dried pigmented and albino Cantharellus cibarius fruit bodies. Mycological Research 106 (1): 70–73. doi:10.1017/S0953756201005299, 2002;
  • Kristensen HL, Rosenqvist E og Jakobsen J: Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Food & Nutrition Research, Vol 56 (2012);
  • Holick MF, Biancuzzo RM, Chen TC, Klein EK, Young A, Bibuld D, et al. Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:677–81.
  •  Armas LAG, Hollis BW, Heaney RP. Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5387–91.

Les også: Kilder til vitamin D i plantebasert kosthold og tilskudd

Vutamin B12

  • Gilsing AMJ, Crowe FL, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TAB, Appleby PN, Allen NE, et al. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:933–9.
  • Krivosíková Z, Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Spustová V, Stefíková K, Valachovicová M, Blazícek P, et al. The association between high plasma homocysteine levels and lower bone mineral density in Slovak women: the impact of vegetarian diet. Eur J Nutr. 2010;49:147–53.
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM): B12. http://pcrm.org/health/veginfo/b12.html
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM): Calcium. http://pcrm.org/health/veginfo/vsk/calcium.htm
  • McBride: B12 Deficiency May Be More Widespread Than Thought. 02.08.2000, USDA Agricultural Research Service, http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2000/000802.htm

Les også: Veganere bør ta tilskudd av vitamin B12

 Biotilgjengelighet

  • Hunt JR. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:633S–639S.

Les også: Derfor er bløtlegging av bønner, linser, erter, nøtter, kjerner og korn viktig!

Barn og vegetariske kostholdsmønstre

Les også: Barn og vegansk/plantebasert kosthold

Databaser, innhold av næringsstoffer i matvarer

Les mer om plantebaserte kosthold og helse: