Overvekt, fedme og kosthold

Vegetarianere og veganere er i gjennomsnittet slankere enn befolkningen for øvrig
Vegetarianere og veganere er i gjennomsnittet slankere enn befolkningen for øvrig

Flere studier viser at et mer plantebasert kosthold kan beskytte mot overvekt og fedme. Mat fra planteriket har som hovedregel lavere energitetthet og lavere innhold av (spesielt mettet) fett. Fiber finnes kun i matvarer fra planteriket.

«Ett högt intag av animalieproteiner, framför allt från mjölkprodukter, under de första levnadsåren kan bidra till ökad tillväxt och högre BMI i barndomen samt är relaterat till tidigare pubertet och ökad risk för övervikt och fetma senare i livet [26, 27].»

Kilde: Oppsummeringsartikkel Vegetarisk mat är bra – även för små barn, av Sara Ask, dietist, og Åsa Strindlund, nutritionist  http://www.lakartidningen.se/Klinik-och-vetenskap/Klinisk-oversikt/2014/03/Vegetarisk-mat-ar-bra–aven-for-sma-barn/

Sjekk nye studier om kosthold og overvekt:

  • Hörnell A, Lagström H, Lande B, et al. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Food Nutr Res. 2013;57. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.21083. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23717219
«In conclusion, the intake of protein among children in the Nordic countries is high and may contribute to increased risk of later obesity. The upper level of a healthy intake is yet to be firmly established. In the meantime, we suggest a mean intake of 15 E% as an upper limit of recommended intake at 12 months, as a higher intake may contribute to increased risk for later obesity.»
 
  • Günther AL, Remer T, Kroke A, et al. Early protein intake and later obesity risk: which protein sources at which time points throughout infancy and childhood are important for body mass index and body fat percentage at 7 y of age? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1765-72.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065597
«A higher animal, especially dairy, protein intake at 12 mo may be associated with an unfavorable body composition at 7 y. The age of 5-6 y might represent another critical period of protein intake for later obesity risk»
 
  • Vergnaud A-C, Norat T, Romaguera D, Mouw T, May AM, Travier N, et al. Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug;92(2):398–407. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/92/2/398.long
«Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management.»
 
«The 5-unit BMI difference between vegans and nonvegetarians indicates a substantial potential of vegetarianism to protect against obesity. Increased conformity to vegetarian diets protected against risk of type 2 diabetes after lifestyle characteristics and BMI were taken into account. Pesco- and semi-vegetarian diets afforded intermediate protection.»
 
  • Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(6):728–34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12833118

 

«Fish-eaters, vegetarians and especially vegans had lower BMI than meat-eaters. Differences in macronutrient intakes accounted for about half the difference in mean BMI between vegans and meat-eaters. High protein and low fibre intakes were the factors most strongly associated with increasing BMI.»

Flere studier om overvekt, fedme og kosthold

  •  Fraser GE: Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(5):1607S-1612S;
  •  Craig WJ: Health effects of vegan diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(5):1627S-1633S;
  •  Craig WJ, Mangels AR: Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc 2009, 109(7):1266-1282;
  •  Dunham L, Kollar LM: Vegetarian eating for children and adolescents. J Pediatr Health Care 2006, 20(1):27-34;
  • Newby PK, Tucker KL, Wolk A. Risk of overweight and obesity among semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:1267–74.
  • Craig WJ, Mangels AR: Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc 2009, 109(7):1266-1282;
  • Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006;65:35-41.
  • Kim MK, Cho SW, Park YK. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels. Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6(2):155-61.
  • Farmer B, Larson BT, Fulgoni VL, et al. A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111:819-27.
  • Sabate J, Wien M: Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 2010, 91(5):1525S-1529S;

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