kilder hvorfor spise mindre animalske matvarer

Kilder:

  1.  Amerikansk ernæringsfysiologforening, Craig, W. J. og Mangels, A. R. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets (2009) J.Am.Diet.Assoc. (109), 7, 1266-1282. http://www.vrg.org/nutrition/2009_ADA_position_paper.pdf
  2. Canadisk ernæringsfysiologforening  http://www.dietitians.ca/Nutrition-Resources-A-Z/Factsheets/Vegetarian/Eating-Guidelines-for-Vegans.aspx
  3. Svenske helsemyndigheter Vegetarisk-mat-till-barn
  4. Norsk lærebok i klinisk ernæring, «Grunnleggende ernæringslære», Forfattere: Jan Ivar Pedersen, Hanne Müller, Anette Hjartåker, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Utgivelsesår: 2012, 460 sider, 2. utgave, Bokmål, ISBN/EAN: 9788205426566
  5. Helsedirektoratet https://helsenorge.no/Helseogsunnhet/Sider/Vegetarisk-kosthold/Generelt.aspx
  6. Nordiske næringsstoffsanbefalinger, «Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012, Part 1, Summary, principles and use, 5th edition» http://www.norden.org/sv/tema/nordic-nutrition-recommendation/
  7. «Kostråd for å fremme folkehelsen og forebygge kroniske sykdommer, Metodologi og vitenskapelig kunnskapsgrunnlag, Nasjonalt råd for ernæring, 2011″ http://helsedirektoratet.no/publikasjoner/kostrad-for-a-fremme-folkehelsen-og-forebygge-kroniske-sykdommer/Publikasjoner/kostrad-for-a-fremme-folkehelsen-2011.pdf
  8. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a Global Perspective. Second expert report (2007). World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. ISSN/ISBN: 978-0-9722522-2-5 http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/cancer_resource_center/downloads/Second_Expert_Report_full.pdf
  9. Doris S. M. Chan, Rosa Lau, Dagfinn Aune, Rui Vieira, Darren C. Greenwood, Ellen Kampman, and Teresa Norat: Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108955/
  10. Shin JY, Xun P, Nakamura Y, He K.: Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul;98(1):146-59. doi: 12.051318. Epub 2013 May 15 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23676423/
  11. Rong Y, Chen L, Zhu T, Song Y, Yu M, Shan Z, Sands A, Hu FB, Liu L.: Egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort. BMJ. 2013 Jan 7;346:e8539. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8539. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23295181
  12. Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era: incidence and survival. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Dec;4(12):2110-21. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0354. Epub 2011 Sep 19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21930800
  13. Helsedirektoratet, presisering av kostrådet om fisk http://www.helsedirektoratet.no/Om/nyheter/Sider/presisering-av-kostrad-om-fisk.aspx
  14. Rajiv Chowdhury, Samantha Warnakula, Setor Kunutsor, Francesca Crowe, Heather A. Ward, Laura Johnson, Oscar H. Franco, Adam S. Butterworth, Nita G. Forouhi, Simon G. Thompson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Dariush Mozaffarian, John Danesh, Emanuele Di Angelantonio; Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary RiskA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2014 Mar;160(6):398-406.  http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1846638.
  15. Bischoff-Ferrari  HA, Dawson-Hughes  B, Baron  JA,  et al.  Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(4):833-839.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.279/abstract;jsessionid=411A56AB35531D85617906EA1F2E6196.f03t02 http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1704826
  16. Helsedirektoratets nettside http://helsenorge.no/Helseogsunnhet/Sider/Mindre-transfett-i-norsk-mat.aspx
  17. Nestel P.:Trans Fatty Acids: Are Its Cardiovascular Risks Fully Appreciated?Clin Ther. 2014 Mar 1;36(3):315-321. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.01.020.
  18. Marianne U Jakobsen, Eilis J O’Reilly, Berit L Heitmann, Mark A Pereira, Katarina Bälter, Gary E Fraser, Uri Goldbourt, Göran Hallmans, Paul Knekt, Simin Liu, Pirjo Pietinen, Donna Spiegelman, June Stevens, Jarmo Virtamo, Walter C Willett, and Alberto Ascherio: Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. First published February 11, 2009, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27124 Am J Clin Nutr May 2009 vol. 89 no. 5 1425-1432
  19. Kreftregisteret  http://www.kreftregisteret.no/no/Generelt/Nyheter/Nokkeltall—kreft-2011/
  20. Oncolex, et nettbasert oppslagsverk for kreftdiagnostikk, -behandling og -oppfølging, hvor helsepersonell kan hente fram relevant og alltid oppdatert informasjon. Oncolex inneholder også pasientinformasjon som kan være til hjelp for helsepersonell i møte med pasient og pårørende.  http://oncolex.no/no/Tykktarm.aspx
  21. Günther, Remer, Kroke, Buyken.  Adolescent milk, dairy product and fruit consumption and testicular cancer.  Br J Cancer. Aug 1996; 74(4): 657–660.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2074682/
  22. Hörnell A, Lagström H, Lande B, et al. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Food Nutr Res. 2013;57. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.21083. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23717219
  23. Günther AL, Remer T, Kroke A, et al. Early protein intake and later obesity risk: which protein sources at which time points throughout infancy and childhood are important for body mass index and body fat percentage at 7 y of age? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1765-72.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065597
  24. Misselwitz, Pohl, Frühauf, Fried, Vavricka, Fox: Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. United European Gastroenterol J. 2013 Jun;1(3):151-9. doi: 10.1177/2050640613484463. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24917953
  25. http://www.pcrm.org/health/health-topics/milk-consumption-and-prostate-cancer
  26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17337642
  27. Tse G, Eslick GD. Egg consumption and risk of GI neoplasms: dose-response meta-analysis and systematic review. Eur J Nutr. 2014 Feb 6.
  28. Choi Y, Chang , Lee JE, et al. Egg consumption and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic men and women. Atherosclerosis. 2015;241:305-312.
Her er flere metaanalyser som viser at kjøtt, enten bearbeidet eller både bearbeidet og rødt kan øke risiko for kreft og overvekt:

–Wang X, Lin X, Ouyang YY, Liu J, Zhao G, Pan A, Hu FB. Red and processed meat consumption and mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Public Health Nutr. 2015 Jul 6:1-13. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26143683. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26143683

–Borgi L, Curhan GC, Willett WC, Hu FB, Satija A, Forman JP. Long-term intake of animal flesh and risk of developing hypertension in three prospective cohort studies. J Hypertens. 2015 Jul 31. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26237562. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26237562

–Guo J, Wei W, Zhan L. Red and processed meat intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015 May;151(1):191-8. doi: 10.1007/s10549-015-3380-9. Epub 2015 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 25893586. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25893586

–Carr PR, Walter V, Brenner H, Hoffmeister M. Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2015 Jan 12. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29423. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25583132.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25583132

–Fallahzadeh H, Cheraghi M, Amoori N, Alaf M. Red meat intake and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(23):10421-5. PubMed PMID: 25556486. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25556486

–Wei Y, Zou D, Cao D, Xie P. Association between processed meat and red meat consumption and risk for glioma: a meta-analysis from 14 articles. Nutrition. 2015 Jan;31(1):45-50. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.04.022. Epub 2014 May 10. PubMed PMID: 25466652.

–Li F, An S, Hou L, Chen P, Lei C, Tan W. Red and processed meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014 Aug  15;7(8):2100-10. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25232394; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4161554. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25232394

Flere

–Turner-McGrievy G, Harris M. Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14(9):524. doi:10.1007/s11892-014-0524-y. Review. PubMed PMID: 25084991. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084991

–Xue XJ, Gao Q, Qiao JH, Zhang J, Xu CP, Liu J. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 33 published studies. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014 Jun 15;7(6):1542-53. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25035778; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4100964. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25035778

–Abete I, Romaguera D, Vieira AR, Lopez de Munain A, Norat T. Association between total, processed, red and white meat consumption and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Br J Nutr. 2014 Sep 14;112(5):762-75. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400124X. Epub 2014 Jun 16. PubMed PMID: 24932617. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24932617

–Pham NM, Mizoue T, Tanaka K, Tsuji I, Tamakoshi A, Matsuo K, Wakai K, Nagata C, Inoue M, Tsugane S, Sasazuki S; Research Group for the Development and

Evaluation of Cancer Prevention Strategies in Japan. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jul;44(7):641-50. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyu061. Epub 2014 May 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 24842864. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24842864

–Rouhani MH, Salehi-Abargouei A, Surkan PJ, Azadbakht L. Is there a relationship between red or processed meat intake and obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Obes Rev. 2014 Sep;15(9):740-8. doi: 10.1111/obr.12172. Epub 2014 May 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 24815945. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815945

–Xu J, Yang XX, Wu YG, Li XY, Bai B. Meat consumption and risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2014  Apr 15;9(4):e95048. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095048. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24736706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3988178. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24736706

–Song P, Lu M, Yin Q, Wu L, Zhang D, Fu B, Wang B, Zhao Q. Red meat consumption and stomach cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014 Jun;140(6):979-92. doi: 10.1007/s00432-014-1637-z. Epub 2014 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 24682372. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed24682372