I 2007 konkluderte The Worlds Cancer Research Fund med overbevisende årsakssammenheng mellom inntaket av rødt kjøtt, bearbeidet kjøtt og utvikling av kreft i tykktarm og endetarm.
Siden da kom det flere studier som støtter sammenhengen. Inntak av animalske produkter er også assosiert med flere andre typer kreft. Økt inntak av grønnsaker, frukt, belgvekster, fullkorn, bær og nøtter kan derimot gi flere helsefordeler og kan beskytte mot kreft. Her kommer kilder om kreft og kosthold
— Wu, Qi-Jun; Wu, Lang; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Xu, Xin; Ji, Chao; Gong, Ting-Ting. Consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from epidemiological studies. European Journal of Cancer Prevention: Post Author Corrections: June 11, 2015 doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000171 http://journals.lww.com/eurjcancerprev/Abstract/publishahead/Consumption_of_fruit_and_vegetables_reduces_risk.99487.aspx
–Tanja Stocks, Tone Bjørge, Hanno Ulmer, Jonas Manjer, Christel Häggström, Gabriele Nagel, Anders Engeland, Dorthe Johansen, Göran Hallmans, Randi Selmer, Hans Concin, Steinar Tretli, Håkan Jonsson and Pär Stattin. Metabolic risk score and cancer risk: pooled analysis of seven cohorts. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2015, 1–11 doi: 10.1093/ije/dyv001
–Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Fan J, Sveen L, Bennett H, Knutsen SF, Beeson WL, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Butler TL, Herring RP, Fraser GE. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Mar 9. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.59. [Epub ahead of print]
–Chelsea Catsburg, Ryung S Kim, Victoria A Kirsh, Colin L Soskolne, Nancy Kreiger, and Thomas E Rohan. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: a study in 2 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr April 2015. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.097659 http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2015/02/11/ajcn.114.097659.short
–Chen Z, Wang PP, Woodrow J, Zhu Y, Roebothan B, Mclaughlin JR, Parfrey PS. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: results from a Canadian population-based study. Nutr J. 2015 Jan 15;14(1):8. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-14-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592002
–Kilde: Pao-Hwa Lin, William Aronson and Stephen J Freedland. Nutrition, dietary interventions and prostate cancer: the latest evidence. BMC Medicine (2015)13:3 DOI 10.1186/s12916-014-0234-y http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12916-014-0234-y.pdf
–Sabine Rohrmann et al.: Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). International Journal of Cancer Volume 136, Issue 5, pages E423–E431, 1 March 2015, DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29236 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.29236/abstract
–Guo J, Wei W, Zhan L. Red and processed meat intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015 May;151(1):191-8. doi: 10.1007/s10549-015-3380-9. Epub 2015 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 25893586. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25893586
–Carr PR, Walter V, Brenner H, Hoffmeister M. Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2015 Jan 12. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29423. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25583132. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25583132
–Wei Y, Zou D, Cao D, Xie P. Association between processed meat and red meat consumption and risk for glioma: a meta-analysis from 14 articles. Nutrition. 2015 Jan;31(1):45-50. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.04.022. Epub 2014 May 10. PubMed PMID: 25466652.
–Norat T, Aune D, Chan D, Romaguera D. Fruits and Vegetables: Updating the Epidemiologic Evidence for the WCRF/AICR Lifestyle Recommendations for Cancer Prevention. Cancer Treat Res. 2014;159:35–50.
–Dagfinn Aune, Deborah A Navarro Rosenblatt, Doris SM Chan, Ana Rita Vieira, Rui Vieira, Darren C Greenwood, Lars J Vatten, and Teresa Norat: Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. First published November 19, 2014, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.067157
–Fallahzadeh H, Cheraghi M, Amoori N, Alaf M. Red meat intake and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(23):10421-5. PubMed PMID: 25556486. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25556486
–Xue XJ, Gao Q, Qiao JH, Zhang J, Xu CP, Liu J. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 33 published studies. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014 Jun 15;7(6):1542-53. eCollection
2014. PubMed PMID: 25035778; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4100964. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25035778
–Li F, An S, Hou L, Chen P, Lei C, Tan W. Red and processed meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014 Aug 15;7(8):2100-10. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25232394; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4161554. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25232394
–Tse G, Eslick GD. Egg consumption and risk of GI neoplasms: dose-response meta-analysis and systematic review. Eur J Nutr. 2014 Feb 6.
–Maryam S. Farvid, Eunyoung Cho, Wendy Y. Chen, A. Heather Eliassen, Walter C. Willett Premenopausal dietary fat in relation to pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. May 2014, Volume 145, Issue 1, pp 255-265 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10549-014-2895-9
«A positive association with animal fat intake was also seen among premenopausal women, but not among postmenopausal women. Higher intakes of saturated fat and monounsaturated fat were each associated with modestly higher breast cancer risk among all women, and higher cholesterol intake was associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk. However, the associations of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and animal fat, were attenuated and non-significant after adjustment for red meat intake. Intakes of other types of fat including vegetable fat, dairy fat, polyunsaturated fat, and trans fat were not associated with breast cancer risk. Our finding suggests a positive association between early adult intake of animal fat and breast cancer risk.»
–Song P, Lu M, Yin Q, Wu L, Zhang D, Fu B, Wang B, Zhao Q. Red meat consumption and stomach cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014 Jun;140(6):979-92. doi: 10.1007/s00432-014-1637-z. Epub 2014 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 24682372. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed24682372
–Xu J, Yang XX, Wu YG, Li XY, Bai B. Meat consumption and risk of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 15;9(4):e95048. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095048. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24736706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3988178. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24736706
–Pham NM, Mizoue T, Tanaka K, Tsuji I, Tamakoshi A, Matsuo K, Wakai K, Nagata C, Inoue M, Tsugane S, Sasazuki S; Research Group for the Development and Evaluation of Cancer Prevention Strategies in Japan. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014 Jul;44(7):641-50. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyu061. Epub 2014 May 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 24842864. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24842864
–Sieri et al.: Dietary Fat Intake and Development of Specific Breast Cancer Subtypes. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst dju114 doi:10.1093/jnci/dju114 first published online April 9, 2014. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/04/04/jnci.dju068.abstract
«High saturated fat was statistically significantly associated with greater risk of HER2− disease. High saturated fat intake particularly increases risk of receptor-positive disease, suggesting saturated fat involvement in the etiology of this BC subtype.» «Consuming a high-fat diet is associated with increased risk of certain types of BC.»
–Farvid MS, Cho E, Chen WY, Eliassen AH, Willett WC. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study. BMJ. Published online June 10, 2014
–Link LB, Canchola AJ, Bernstein L, Clarke CA, Stram DO, Ursin G, Horn-Ross PL. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort. Journal Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec;98(6):1524-32. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.061184. Epub 2013 Oct 9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24108781/
«The finding that greater consumption of a plant-based dietary pattern is associated with a reduced breast cancer risk, particularly for ER-PR- tumors, offers a potential avenue for prevention.»–Choi Y, Song S, Song Y, Lee JE. Consumption of red and processed meat and esophageal cancer risk: meta-analysis. 2013 Feb 21;19(7):1020-9. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i7.1020. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23467465
«The combined RRs (95%CI) of the cohort studies comparing the highest and lowest categories were 1.26 (1.00-1.59) for red meat and 1.25 (0.83-1.86) for processed meat. For the case-control studies, the combined RRs (95%CI) comparing the highest and lowest categories were 1.44 (1.16-1.80) for red meat and 1.36 (1.07-1.74) for processed meat. Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that a higher consumption of red meat was associated with a greater risk of esophageal cancer.»
–Aune D, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, Norat T. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr;24(4):611-27. doi: 10.1007/s10552-012-0139-z. Epub 2013 Feb 5.
–Yessenia Tantamango-Bartley, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Jing Fan, Gary Fraser: Vegetarian Diets and the Incidence of Cancer in a Low-risk Population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(2); 286–94. ©2012 AACR http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/22/2/286.long
–Yessenia Tantamango-Bartley, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Jing Fan, Gary Fraser: Vegetarian Diets and the Incidence of Cancer in a Low-risk Population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(2); 286–94. ©2012 AACR http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/22/2/286.abstract
«Conclusion: Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer. Impact: Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specific cancer than other dietary patterns. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets seem to confer protection from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(2); 286–94. ©2012 AACR.»
–Doris S. M. Chan, Rosa Lau, Dagfinn Aune, Rui Vieira, Darren C. Greenwood, Ellen Kampman, and Teresa Norat: Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6): e20456. Published online 2011 Jun 6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020456 2011 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108955/
—Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a Global Perspective. Second expert report (2007). World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research. ISSN/ISBN: 978-0-9722522-2-5 http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/cancer_resource_center/downloads/Second_Expert_Report_full.pdf –http://www.wcrf-uk.org/PDFs/processed_meat.pdf
–Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Chan JM. Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era: incidence and survival. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Dec;4(12):2110-21. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0354. Epub 2011 Sep 19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21930800
«In conclusion, consumption of eggs may increase risk of developing a lethal form of prostate cancer among healthy men.»
–Aune D, Chan DSM, Lau R, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, et al. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2011;343(November):d6617.
–Aune D, De Stefani E, Ronco A, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Acosta G, et al. Legume intake and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:1605–15.
–Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Allen NE, Thorogood M, et al. Cancer incidence in British vegetarians. Br J Cancer. 2009 Jul 7;101(1):192–7.
–Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Allen NE, Thorogood M, et al. Cancer incidence in British vegetarians. Br J Cancer. 2009 Jul 7;101(1):192–7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699384/
–Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Willett WC: Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Res 1994, 54(9):2390-2397;
-Aldoori WH, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, Wing AL, Trichopoulos D V, Willett WC. A prospective study of diet and the risk of symptomatic diverticular disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Nov;60(5):757–64.
–Günther, Remer, Kroke, Buyken. Adolescent milk, dairy product and fruit consumption and testicular cancer. Br J Cancer. Aug 1996; 74(4): 657–660. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2074682/
–Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE: Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N Engl J Med 1990, 323(24):1664-1672;
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